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GSTF


Best Paper Awards 2017

Technology in Urban & Regional Planning, Sustainability & Preservation

Best Research Paper
Dr. Ankhi Banerjee
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Best Research Paper
Rani Prihatmanti
Universiti Sains Malaysia

Architecture & Engineering Design, Theory and Teaching

Best Research Paper
Dr. Jaser Khalaf Mahasneh
Jordan University of Science and Technology

Best Research Paper
Yashodha Perera
University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

Technology Research & Practice

Best Research Paper
Dr. Hassan Majeed Hassoon
ISHIK University Erbil, Iraq

Best Research Paper
Yerong Huang
The University of Sydney, Australia

Best Research Paper
Benjamin Jacot, Dimitrios Pagonakis, Mitchell Shope, Corentin Fivet, John A. Ochsendorf
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Editor’s Choice

Prof. Robert Powell
Taylor's University Lakeside Campus, Malaysia

Anand Nirbhay Shah
CEPT University, India


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Selected Paper Submissions for Oral Presentation at ACE 2017 (as at 7th Aug 2017)


PAPER TITLE

The coastal areas of Bangladesh experienced two of the most devastating cyclones of the last decade, consequently in 2007(Sidr) and in 2009(Aila) that concluded in a devastating aftermath of at least 3786 deaths. More than 2.5 million people were left homeless and the total damage was counted to be of more than 650 million. The massive loss of life is due to the high density of population in the coastal areas, people living in poverty within poorly constructed houses and the extremely low-lying land of the coastal zone. In the name of disaster preparedness, the major response to frequent cyclonic storms has been the establishment of cyclone shelters, which considering the depth of damage forced upon by such calamities, have failed to ensure minimum loss of lives and assets. The reason behind that is, while the cyclone shelters have been proved to be useful they are more of a disaster management solution and thus is useful particularly in the event of a cyclone. But in the case of developing countries like Bangladesh where the coastal areas are highly vulnerable to such cyclonic effects, actions on identifying the point of intervention at micro level becomes paramount. Acknowledging this scenario, it becomes necessary to walk through a more suited approach that will enhance building sustainability during and after cyclones and will minimize the damages in the event of a disaster. An extensive survey was conducted in Satkhira, one of the most disaster prone coastal areas of Bangladesh, to document the architectural, structural and traditional features of the construction of these houses. This paper summarizes the challenges and their probable responses with the aim of making the traditional structures more compatible to cyclonic storms by proposing some vital guidelines for traditional house building in coastal areas of Bangladesh.
Traditional architectures are well known for their adaptability to local climate condition, topography, and available resources, resulting in a comfortable indoor environment without using excessive energy. Hence, this study aims to investigate the effect of sustainability in traditional Cambodian houses. The outcome of the study is indicated that the traditional Cambodian house is creatively adapted to the local climate conditions; it provides comfortable and healthy living environment that harmonizes with nature, climate and occupants’ living style. Therefore, integration techniques of traditional Cambodian house, particularly sustainable techniques should be considered as an innovative step towards design for the future sustainable contemporary settlements.
Concrete is most extensively used material in today’s rapidly growing world. In various structures, the concrete section has used to carry different types of loads. Many times concrete poses difficulty in its usage and application and hence a new material called flexible concrete sheet has developed. The paper covers the major aspect of the behavioral study of flexible concrete sheet. Flexible concrete sheet is the composite member having three layers in which bottom layer is impermeable layer, intermediate layer is a 3-D fiber matrix and top layer is permeable cotton layer. The middle layer has filled with a settable material, which can be cured. The settable material used here is cement mortar. This paper also emphases on the benefits of the flexible concrete sheet in various different applications. The paper also includes the financial study and cost comparison of flexible concrete sheet with the conventional concrete material.
Self- Compacting Concrete is a special type of concrete that is able to flow and compact under its own weight and can occupy all the spaces in the form without any vibration and at the same time it is cohesive enough to be handled without bleeding or segregation. In recent years, self-compacting concrete has been gaining wide range of application for placement in congested reinforced concrete structures with difficult casting conditions. For such applications, the fresh concrete must possess high fluidity and good cohesiveness. The use of additive materials such as industrial wastes as mineral admixtures can ensure the required concrete properties. The initial experimental study aims at producing and evaluating SCC for ternary and quaternary blends incorporating fly ash, GGBS, sugarcane bagasse ash and alccofine as partial replacement of cement. Twelve number of SCC mixtures were investigated in this study. The self-compacting mixes have cement replacement with different percentages of mineral admixtures while keeping cement quantity fixed for 350kg/m3.The tests such as slump flow test, V funnel test, T500 slump flow test, J ring test and V5min test were carried on fresh properties of SCC mixes to check the prerequisites mentioned in EFNARC, the mechanical properties of hardened concretes such as compressive strength, split tensile strength and durability tests such as alkali attack test and sulphate attack test were also carried on all the mixes. Incorporating these mineral admixtures resulted in producing economical concrete and the workability requirements of SCC were satisfied, the strength obtained was maximum when alccofine and GBBS were added in the concrete.
Architecture and landscape are two major components, which merge together to form an attractive urban skyline. Till recent past, they were treated as different entities, which were clubbed together in a project after a certain stage. This therefore led to a creation in which landscaping was majorly an add on element. Landscape elements were planned, designed and executed at a very later stage in any project. With the problems caused by the rapid development of local urbanism, in Asian urban areas, contemporary architecture has been strongly influenced by the concepts and methods of landscape where the typical projects are not merely referring to the interaction between buildings inside and landscape outside, but the overall structure or the built form are designed as an artificial landscape on its own in local urban environment. Based on systematic overview and case study, this paper puts forward a new and sustainable mindset of Architecture as ArchiScape and refines three main aspects: site design, space design and scape design. The results show that architecture as ArchiScape could lead reasonable thinking and sustainable strategies for architecture design under local urbanism, which indicate a significant and valuable methodology both for research and practice.
The selection of a suitable water treatment method especially for rural water supply is fundamental to household water treatment and quite challenging because there is rarely any single solution. The selection process must therefore be based on a detailed analysis of collected water samples and practical experience. The Yenagoa area, South-South Nigeria is noted to have poor groundwater quality due to objectionable high concentration of certain offensive groundwater parameters and encroachment of saltwater or brackish water into the freshwater aquifers. Results taken from the web on the quality analysis of groundwater samples from various locations in and around Yenagoa and evaluated with reference to WHO standards for drinking water indicates that the concentrations of the chemical constituents like iron, phosphate and manganese varied spatially. Based on this analysis ground water in Yenagoa is generally unfit for drinking and other household uses. Therefore the water requires treatment for these parameters to make it potable and then meet the WHO’s standards for household waters. The choice and cost of probable technologies that could be adapted by residents to treat their household water in order to eliminate water borne diseases becomes an issue because many technologies available to large systems may be too expensive or complicated for small household systems to even consider especially for less technologically savvy environment like Nigeria. It is therefore pertinent that small systems must explore innovative technologies that are affordable and sustainable. This work examines the multi-barrier low cost treatment technology approach as suitable for borehole water treatment in Yenagoa and environs. The information supplied will enable borehole owners to adopt an inexpensive technology for its water needs that does not requires the engagement of high skill personnel and again this paper is not intended to be a rigorous analysis of all the methods available but is offered as an “aide memoire” to bore-well owners in and around Yenagoa that are looking for rapid, realistic results from available water treatment technologies.
Groundwater constitutes a major source of water supply in Bayelsa State. To prevent fluctuations in the water or piezometric level and to ensure large and uniform yield to furnish the water supply needs of urban and rural surface groundwater reservoirs, boreholes are constructed both in the upland and riverine parts of the state. The most common techniques of drilling boreholes in Bayelsa State are use of cable tool and rotary techniques. The cost of constructing water borehole in Bayelsa State is affected by many factors, which include: the type of material used (casing and screen), borehole size and type of formation. More so, it is found from this study that borehole construction is more expensive in the riverine areas than in the upland areas of the state. Information gathered from drilling companies in the state shows that the cost of constructing a borehole has been on the increase over the years until it became disproportionately high between 2014 and 2017. Monitoring of both boreholes and aquifers, and maintenance of the boreholes, pumps and accessories are indispensible for long economic service life, but these are found to be poorly served in the state.
Ordinary concrete is brittle in nature having low tensile and flexural strength. Incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in concrete is a modern technique to enhance its strength. This study focuses on the improvement of concrete strength with the addition of MWCNTs. Concrete cylinders and beams were cast as per ASTM standards. CNTs were added at a rate of 0%, 0.15% and 0.2% by mass of cement. The dispersion of CNTs was achieved through ultra-sonication after treating with a sulphonated naphthalene based surfactant. Strength tests were conducted at 3rd, 7th, 28th and 56th days as per ASTM standards. The results show an increase in compressive strength at older ages and, enhanced tensile and flexural strengths at all ages.
There has been a spurt of activities aimed at decreasing the environmental impacts of traditional infrastructure materials and improving the sustainability in infrastructure. The emergence of nanomaterials has provided a means to engineer and manipulate the performance of cement-based materials, and overcome shortcomings associated with these materials. Cellulose nanocrystalline (CNC) fibers are a class of nanomaterials that are derived from trees and plants, and therefore, bear the advantages of being environmentally friendly and biodegradable. In this paper, the hydration, mechanical strength, and transport properties of cement pastes modified with CNC fibers are examined. Cement pastes with various concentrations of CNC fibers were prepared and their hydration was studied using the chemical shrinkage and heat of hydration tests. Compressive and flexural strength test were performed to assess the mechanical properties of the modified cement pastes. Electrical resistivity was adopted to obtain information about the transport and microstructure of the cement pastes modified with CNC fibers. The results pertaining to the hydration, strength, and transport of cement pastes modified with CNC fibers are discussed.
With the increase in the Brazilian population and with a great ease for an acquisition of an automotive vehicle, there has been a considerable increase on the number of tires that there is no possibility of reversal, becoming a 'headache' to society. The current techniques proposed for the final destination of the tires are not 100% efficient, and there is a great deficit of the material mentioned. Another material that needs a final destination is PET, which nowadays despite the large amount recycled, needs more disposal options. This study presents a proposal for crushed rubber (Chip - 4.60 mm, Fiber - 2.0 mm, Powder - 2.0 mm) in different percentages (5%, 7%, 10% in relation to the dry weight of Bentonite) and PET fiber (2,0mm). As reinforcement of the mechanical parameters, improving the behavior of Bentonite. The objective was to evaluate the behavior of the pure Bentonite, to make a comparison of its properties with the mixed materials in the different percentages and to compare the results with other works already described. For the development of the experimental study, physical characterization and mechanical characterization tests were carried out, such as particle size analysis and direct shear test. The aiming of the research was to analyze the results in the search to establish behavior patterns that explain the influence of the addition of the ground rubber and the PET fiber in the bentonite, being possible to make an analysis if there was or not an increase in the shear strength. The results showed that for the three types of rubber ground tire there was a contribution to increase the parameters of shear strength of the blends when compared to the pure material. For the tests carried out with pet fiber, there was a significant increase in the peak resistance for stresses up to 100 kPa. For stresse of 150 kPa the peak resistance was close to residual resistance.
This pioneering reference book categorises the architecture of zoological gardens in relation to construction typology. On the basis of five generations of zoos, the author demonstrates that social values have continuously remained discernible in the coexistence of humans and animals since the first scientifically administered zoo in terms of architecture. Besides the documentation of thirty seminal historic zoos, a thorough analysis is given of fifty international ones built over the past twenty years. Scaled floor plans, elevations and sections as well as large-format photographs impart insight with a hitherto absent depth of content. Furthermore, ten design parameters are outlined which may give guidance on the planning of a zoo.
Self-compacting concrete (SCC) refers to high strength concrete which will compact under its own weight and does not require external vibration. The self-compacting concrete is a relatively innovative type of concrete that differs from the conventional vibrated concrete SCC composition consists of maximum volume of fine aggregate and powder content, whereas coarse aggregate occupies lesser quantity. The concrete prepared for SCC was highly fluid and it was achieved by Super plasticizers and Stabilizers of optimum dosages. This research presents the result of an experimental programme that has been carried out, aimed at investigating of FRESH properties of SCC contain metakoaline and superplasticiser. The fresh state properties of the concrete were evaluated. Finally, some hardened state properties of the concrete were assessed. Portland cement was partially replaced with 30%, 50% 70% and metakoaline the water cement ratio was maintained 0.5 for all the mixes .Properties included workability, compressive strength, total water absorption and all were evaluated. The result indicated that the medium volume contain of metakoaline can be used in SCC to produce good strength concrete with this type of superplasticiser that originated from waste material. Replacing 50% of Portland cement with fly ash resulted in a strength of more than 38mpa at 28days .High absorption values are obtained with increasing amount of metakoaline however almost all the specimen exhibits absorption of less than 5%. The concrete mixes contained 3 different dosage of a novel super plasticiser based on the carboxylic with and without metakoaline. The percentage of dosage of superplasticiser is 0.25%, 1%, and 2% respectively. The increase in superplasticiser dosage from 0.25% to 2% the workability increase so the required slump flow meet the criteria of EFNARC also the result of mechanical properties compressive strength for 0.25% ,1% and 2% have shown significant performance compare with the control mixes.
The paper explores the feasibility of using biomass ash and slag based geopolymer concrete and to investigate their strength and durability characterstics. Geopolymer concrete(GPC) was developed using biomass ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) in different percentages and the strength and durability characteristics of this new concrete were investigated in order to explain its utilization potential. Studies are being systematically conducted on these new materials with regards to both strength and durability characteristics. In the present investigation, the Geopolymer concrete was subjected to attack by sulphuric acid for understanding durability aspects of the new concretes. In present research work, bio mass ash and slag based geopolymer was used as the binder, instead of Portland or any other hydraulic cement paste, to produce concrete. The biomass ash-slag based geopolymer paste binds the loose coarse aggregates, fine aggregates and other un-reacted materials together to form the geopolymer concrete, with or without the presence of admixtures.
Speeding has been consistently ranked among the top five primary causes of severe road crashes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In fact, speeding has been prevalent even on urban, residential streets where low, area-wide speed limits are the norm. Unfortunately, speeding has resulted in casualties, especially involving pedestrians. This research aims to develop a methodology which estimates spacing between consecutive traffic calming measures (TCMs) which may be effective in keeping vehicle speeds at or below the posted speed limit. This methodology adopted an analytical approach based on: 1) determining the speed reduction effect of different TCMs, and 2) estimating spacing between consecutive TCMs that would effectively control vehicle operating speeds. While literature provides general spacing values which are applicable for all TCMs, distinct TCMs are observed to act differently in terms of speed reduction effectiveness. Therefore, adopting spacing values between TCMs indiscriminately gives rise to stretches of roads between TCMs where motorists reach undesirably high speeds, minimizing the benefits of TCMs. The application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using scenarios containing speed humps and speed tables. However, the methodology could also be applied to other TCMs such as mini-roundabouts and raised junctions. The output from this study is suitable to UAE’s reality since it relies on local data. The application of the methodology developed in this research is especially recommended within areas where lower speed limits are to be adopted, such as residential streets, downtown areas with significant pedestrian movements, and school zones.
Ordinary concrete is a brittle material possessing low tensile and flexural strength. Incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in concrete is a modern technique to enhance its mechanical characteristics. This study focuses on the improvement in strength with the addition of MWCNTs. Concrete cylinders and beams were cast as per ASTM standards. CNTs were added at a rate of 0%, 0.15% and 0.20% by mass of cement. The dispersion of CNTs was achieved through ultra-sonication after treating with a sulfonated naphthalene based surfactant. Strength tests were conducted at 3rd, 7th, 28th and 56th days as per ASTM standards. The results show an increase in compressive strength at older ages and, enhanced tensile and flexural strengths at all ages.
The change of density and different saturation conditions on the Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) of soil are analyzed. The present study is aimed at determining the influence of the specific gravity, optimum Moisture Content, and maximum dry density obtained from both the Standard Proctor Test and the Modified Proctor Test on the UCS of black cotton soil and yellow soil for Navsari and Surat, cities located in the South Gujarat region in western India. The results of UCS Test showed different saturation conditions at each density. The graph showed an upward slant at the Standard Proctor density from 90% to 100% saturation.
Pedestrians are in peril and are fast vanishing from the urban scene because of the perceptible threats and other factors. Having rediscovered the importance of walkable environments under the sustainability garb in terms of their social, health and environmental implications, various governments across the globe are increasingly attempting to make their cities and neighbourhoods more pedestrian friendly. Sustenance of the renewed spirits lies to a large extent in the legislative framework that a city or a state offers dictating its built environment. The various relevant policies, rules and regulations have to be understood in terms of their impact on the pedestrians. In this context, the paper first highlights the concerns for decline of walking in the Indian cities and the failure of our planning agencies in responding to the pedestrian context. Thereafter it brings forth the various legislations at various levels of governance that could be instrumental in promoting the sustained pedestrian spirits in the context of Indian cities. The paper also discusses the initiatives of various organizations towards promoting walkability of Indian cities. It is observed that enough policies and guidelines exist safeguarding and promoting the pedestrian interests in the Indian cities, however, implementation in the true spirits is grossly lacking.
Speeding has been consistently ranked among the top five primary causes of severe road crashes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In fact, speeding has been prevalent even on urban, residential streets where low, area-wide speed limits are the norm. Unfortunately, speeding has resulted in casualties, especially involving pedestrians. This research aims to develop a methodology which estimates spacing between consecutive traffic calming measures (TCMs) which may be effective in keeping vehicle speeds at or below the posted speed limit. This methodology adopted an analytical approach based on: 1) determining the speed reduction effect of different TCMs, and 2) estimating spacing between consecutive TCMs that would effectively control vehicle operating speeds. While literature provides general spacing values which are applicable for all TCMs, distinct TCMs are observed to act differently in terms of speed reduction effectiveness. Therefore, adopting spacing values between TCMs indiscriminately gives rise to stretches of roads between TCMs where motorists reach undesirably high speeds, minimizing the benefits of TCMs. The application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using scenarios containing speed humps and speed tables. However, the methodology could also be applied to other TCMs such as mini-roundabouts and raised junctions. The output from this study is suitable to UAE’s reality since it relies on local data. The application of the methodology developed in this research is especially recommended within areas where lower speed limits are to be adopted, such as residential streets, downtown areas with significant pedestrian movements, and school zones.
Due to the fact that concrete is the most widely used construction material in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the world which have heavy weight. Since the major component of concrete is the aggregate with variety of lightweight aggregate (LWA) types available in SA, this research comes to focus on the selection of the best LWA to produce lightweight concrete (LWC) through replacing of normal coarse aggregate by two lightweight materials are available in SA Expanded Perlite (EP) and Cicolite, by mixing different percentages starting from 50% to 100%. And investigate the mechanical properties thought laboratory experiments for different curing periods of 7, 28, and 90 days. The results indicate that 50% Cicolite replacement is the best replacement percentage for structural aspects of reduction in density 13.2% comparing with normal coarse aggregate (2150 kg/m3) and achievement percentage of design strength at 28 days is more than 31%. For nonstructural aspects 100% of EP replacement is selected of density 1400 kg/m3 lower than normal mix by 43% with compressive strength of 13.7 MPa. Which will reduce structure own weight, reinforcement needed, cross-sections size, and materials used.
The study of what architecture means to people in their everyday lives inadequately addresses the contextualized and holistic theoretical framework. This article succinctly presents theoretical framework obtained from the comparative study of how people experience the everyday architecture in three different contexts including 1) Bangkok CBD, 2) Phuket island old-town, and 3) Nan province old-town. The way people make sense of the everyday architecture can be addressed in four super-ordinate themes; (1) building in urban (text), (2) building in (text), (3) building in human (text), (4) and building in time (text). In this article, these super-ordinate themes were verified whether they recur in three studied-contexts. In each studiedcontext, the participants were divided into two groups, 1) local people, 2) visitors. Participants were asked to take photographs of the everyday architecture during the everyday routine and to participate the elicit-interview with photographs produced by themselves. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was adopted to interpret elicit-interview data. Sub-themes emerging in each studied-context was brought into the cross comparison among three studied- contexts. It is found that four superordinate themes recur with additional distinctive sub-themes. Further studies in other different contexts, such as socio-political, economic, cultural differences, are recommended to complete the theoretical framework.
Safety climate is a construct reflecting the true priority of safety within an organization, and it has long been applied as a reliable predictor of safety performance (e.g., accident rates and occupational injuries). With advancement in technology, there is increasing use of advanced technologies in construction industry for enhanced productivity and reduced cost as well as improved quality and safer work environment. However, there has been no study so far examining the role of workers’ acceptance of construction technologies in accident involvement, despite of their frequent interaction with a wide variety of construction technologies in construction workplaces. This study aims at identifying the relationship between safety climate and safety performance for construction management personnel in Hong Kong, with technology acceptance as a mediator. The results showed perceived usefulness of construction technologies serve as a mediator in the underlying mechanism of the indirect relationship between the safety climate of an organization and the safety performance of the construction management. Also, perceived ease of use was found to exert an indirect effect on safety performance mediated by perceived usefulness. According to these results, three relevant recommendations for improving the safety performance of construction management personnel have been made.
The development of an architectural project requires a specific knowledge and involves many questions. What is the nature of the project? How does the nature of the project involve knowledge of certain kinds? What are the sources of this knowledge (local, regional or international, abstract or real)? This Conference gives us an opportunity to discuss these issues through the case of the department of architectural engineering at Ajman University of Science and Technology, not only in terms of a structure for the formation of architects but to identify the department from the doctrinal point of view. These questions will be treated by looking at, on the one hand the structure of the department, and on the other hand by analysing the different projects developed in the Studio of architecture (Fourth year and Graduation Projects). Hence of the fact that the structure of the environment has a direct impact on the behaviour of the users, one notice that the majority of operations planned distinguishes themselves by their demarcations and differences with regard to the immediate environment. The same remark is observed in projects developed in the department of architecture, in the sense that most of the projects are referred to the projects and buildings published in the different magazines of architecture. The question of regional style or international style in Architecture will be discussed trough the development of the project of architecture as a pedagogical exercise. This question will lead us to see the relation between design knowledge and other sources of knowledge. This paper is an analysis of these different questions, and it is from them that we will explore, on the one hand, the stylistic preferences in the development of the projects of architecture at the department, and on the other hand the role of self-criticism, the immediate environment and the history of the architecture in the process and development of the architectural project.
In the present study, the numerical analysis has been carried out by using PLAXIS 2D. The analyses are carried out on single model pile under cyclic loading to determine the behaviour of the soil-pile system. A single pile of embedment length to diameter ratio (L/D) of 20, 25 and 30 were located on the horizontal ground surface and slope angle of 1V:1H and 1V:5H was subjected to cyclic loading of 60N with the applied frequency of magnitude 10Hz. From the analysis, the acceleration, displacement and bending moment of the pile under each case was studied. From the study, it is very clear that as L/D ratio increases, the acceleration, maximum displacement and bending moment are reduced.
The housing sector in India has evolved from a ‘social welfare’ provision to a ‘market-based’ industry, pulling in enormous investments from the private sector. It has grown from a ‘basic’ right to becoming a key driver in the economy, considering its huge multiplier effect. Housing currently contributes 5-6% to the nation’s GDP and employs almost one-fifth of the total working population. This paper examines the series of approaches taken and correspondingly, the different instruments implemented to regulate and control the housing sector. We observe a shift in the policy postulates over time, designed to support the private sector and provide them an enabling environment to tackle the growth of housing stress in the country. A multi-stakeholder approach is adopted to de-centralize the housing delivery process. Moreover, the integration of housing development with master planning and land use planning is emphasized in the latest policies.
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The project involved a farm property in Lankaran - Azerbaijan, roughly 85 hectares of hilly landscapes, in the south of the country on the border with Iran. The soil is characterized by clay soils and mixed morphology with strong slopes. The climate is Mediterranean with cold and rainy episodes. Moreover, in Soviet times, the morphology and position of soils has been extensively remodelled. A plateau in the south east of the property, used for the cultivation of tea, resulted from geological surveys to be the substrate of a hill in reasonable continuity with the rest of the contour lines, which probably in the 60's was flattened to allow surface irrigation of crops. These invasive techniques, in addition to deep ploughing, elimination of natural vegetation and intense grazing, have triggered erosion and accentuated slope instability. In particular, the overload of unregulated cattle overgrazing, as well as the removal of timber and poaching have depleted over time biodiversity and soil fertility. Although the site is surrounded by a protected area, the harvesting intensity and overhunting are however practiced. Within the area there is also an artificial lake used for irrigation and fishing, which attracts wildlife.
This research is intended to simulate the already developed mathematical model for the five means of transportation systems which are the bicycle, water transportation, taxi, bus and metro, those means of transportation have been considered for the already derived mathematical models. The resulting ecological footprint effect is being used to reflect those means of transport on the environment. A simplified approach to those means is represented by bicycle sustainable unit (BSU). In order to testify this newly derived mathematical model, the equivalent effects of different transportation systems on the environment are represented. The simulation is applied to four random cities of different geographical locations and they are considered to optimize the sustainability of transportation in these areas; Erbil ( KRG/Iraq), Amara (Iraq), Dubai ( UAE) and Glasgow (UK). The four randomly selected geographical locations have different modes of transportation. Conclusive remarks have been drawn accordingly to achieve safe and distinguished sustainable guidelines to be implemented in future traffic and transportation systems evaluations.
The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS II) is a third-generation synchrotron light source particle accelerator. A synchrotron is a large machine that accelerates charged particles (electrons, protons, or heavy-ion particles) to a speed close to that of light. The particles create extremely bright lights as they are deflected through magnetic fields. The magnetic fields which bend the particle beams into closed paths increase with time during the accelerating process, being synchronized to the increasing kinetic energy of the particles. The kinetic energy of the particles is then kept constant in the storage ring. The synchrotron is one of the first accelerator types to enable construction of large-scale facilities, since bending, beam focusing, and acceleration can be separated into different components. Photon beam generation devices such as wigglers and undulators direct photon beams through beamlines towards a research target. The main factors influencing NSLS II facility design are vibration reduction and radiation shielding. High brilliance of the third generation of light sources requires exceptional beam stability in the storage rings.
The project involved a farm property in Lankaran - Azerbaijan, roughly 85 hectares of hilly landscapes, in the southern part of the country, near the border with Iran. The soil is characterized by clay soils and mixed morphology with strong slopes. The climate is Mediterranean with cold and rainy episodes. Moreover, in Soviet times, the morphology and position of the soil has been largely remodeled. A plateau in the south east of the property, used for the cultivation of tea, resulted from geological surveys to be the substrate of a hill in reasonable continuity with the rest of the contour lines, which probably in the 60's was flattened to allow surface irrigation of crops. These invasive techniques, in addition to deep plowing, elimination of natural vegetation and intense grazing, started erosion and accentuated slope instability. In particular, the overload of unregulated cattle overgrazing, as well as the removal of timber and poaching have depleted over time biodiversity and soil fertility. Although the site is surrounded by a protected area, the harvesting intensity and overhunting are however practiced. Within the project site there is also an artificial lake used for irrigation and fishing, which attracts wildlife.
As digital fabrication processes become more common in the building industry, architects are challenged to design for the capacities of the new fabrication machinery. This paper describes computational methods for evaluating the buildability of architectural elements, in relation to the machine chosen to produce them. We focus on developing methods for the evaluation of molds for concrete elements with a complex geometry. The developed methods are tailored to specific digital fabrication processes, common in the building industry: bent sheet material molds and molds in solid material. The evaluation algorithm uses differential curvature properties of surfaces together with mesh-based operations to evaluate the feasibility of a geometry and the machine time necessary to fabricate it. The innovation of this method is that the feasibility and machine time are calculated rather than simulated, which leads to obtaining results in a fraction of the traditional time. The suggested method was developed into a tool which can be seamlessly integrated into the architectural design process. The speed and accuracy of the suggested method and tool were validated in a design experiment. The real-time buildability information it provides can help designers embed fabrication knowledge into their designs, changing the design where necessary to adapt it to the fabrication process.
Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams with externally bonded fiber reinforced polymers (EBFRP) has gain interest in the civil engineering field in the past 3 decades. Numerous studies investigated the behavior of such strengthening system under monotonic loading. However, its fatigue behavior still lack a comprehensive understanding. This study investigates the effect of regular overloading on the fatigue life of RC beams strengthened with EBFRP. This study includes five RC beams with dimensions of 152.4×152.4×1500 mm strengthened with 1 layer of Carbon (C) FRP attached to its soffits. One beam tested monotonically to serve as a reference and the others tested under four-point flexural fatigue loading. The pattern of the fatigue loading was chosen to simulate the real-world loading on bridges. When compared to the literature; the results show that overloading extends the fatigue life of the strengthened beam as long as it ranges between 63-80% of the yield strength of the beam.
Due to the occurrence of earthquakes all across the planet and the fact that high percentage of existing buildings are made with reinforced concrete frames and due to the stability of concrete buildings against earthquakes, retrofitting the existing structures is a basic necessity. In this regard a reinforced concrete frame which has been studied experimentally has been chosen after initial simulations and verifications by ABAQUS software as the theme to model and has been compared with experimental results, listed by the relevant structures, retrofitting is then assessed and investigated. In the numerical analysis, the verified concrete frame has been reinforced with full scale retrofit and various members of reinforced CFRP fibers and has been affected by cyclic loading, and the response has been assessed on strength improvement and flexibility of reinforced concrete frame; and then the most optimal choice has been chosen for retrofitting the under part load. Reinforced concrete frame columns have greatest impact on improving the initial stiffness samples than the rest of FRP strips. Reinforcing the frame’s joints has less impact on the behavior of cycles of the reinforced concrete frames than other members. The overall results show that using CFRP strips to bolster vertical concrete frame beams cause significant improvement in seismic behavior of systems such as the amount of energy dissipation under cyclic loadings; so it is recommended as the best place in order to reinforce the concrete frames.
The Greek city, as any other city, can be “read” in many ways. One of those “readings” is through its history, another one, probably the most enchanting, is undoubtedly through its built history. The built history of the city though is not continuous, not only on the visible surface of its ground, but also underneath. This is due to the fact that the Greek city is a “palimpsest”. A palimpsest which like any real palimpsest is not visible, except whether someone is “searching” for, or in other words, looking forward to. As a result the Greek city provides to our perceptions only the higher layer of the palimpsest, the contemporary superficial one, which is already built, incredibly built and hides whatever is located underneath. The very few existing traces of history, mostly monuments, are those that escaped the fury of the postwar “reconstruction”, and therefore cut from their historical tissue, built and non-built, almost without voids around them. With its overbuilt completeness then, or because of it, the superficial layer of the urban palimpsest does not consist of a space through which the historical traces of the past, hidden under the ground, could be emerged. Thus the superficial layer of the present does not allow the apocalypse of the lower layers of the past. On the contrary, the urban void, the non-built, the leftover of the built, the up to now underestimated and downgraded, cut from its historical tissue, is provided as the ideal condition, probably the unique condition, for the trace of history to be emerged. In a few words, only within the urban void the excavation process is possible. It has to be though an exploring excavation process, not only in the ground, but also in the unconscious. A double “palimpsest” then. Talking about the unconscious and excavation, the position of P. Eisenman comes to mind, when he introduces new concepts of “decentering” including among others: “’excavation’, which signifies digging into the past and the unconscious” (Jencks 1989, 126).
The guesthouses and inns are a type of architecture that has been fundamental in the history of communications; without a place to stop along the way to rest, feed and make the change of beasts, it would not have been possible to travel through the difficult roads around Spain. Its inclusion in historical cartography and geographical dictionaries and the existence of a specific legislation reflects the importance they had for centuries. The modification and improvement of old roads and the opening of new routes have caused many of these buildings to have disappeared or to run the risk of disappearing without having documented their morphological, compositional, constructive and their relationships with society of the moment. It is, therefore, necessary to proceed with its location in order to contribute to the knowledge and enhancement of these auxiliary constructions to the roads, which are part of the civil works and, therefore, of the Spanish Cultural Heritage.

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